Diseases Scope of the EU RL

The EU RL for equine diseases is responsible for eleven diseases:

  • Virological diseases: equine viral arteritis (EVA), equine infectious anaemia (EIA), West Nile virus (WNV), Eastern, Western and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (EEEV, WEEV and VEEV) and vesicular stomatitis (VSV)
  • Bacteriological diseases: glanders/melioidosis and contagious equine metritis (CEM)
  • Parasitological disease : Dourine



Equine encephalitis viruses

West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus

West Nile fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease that can affect birds, humans and horses causing inapparent infection, mild febrile illness, meningitis, encephalitis, or death.

Read the all presentation of West Nile virus PDF Source -http://www.oie.int


Japanese encephalitis virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes encephalitis, principally in horses.

Read the all presentation of Japanese encephalitis virus -PDF Source -http://www.oie.int

Eastern, Western and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis

  • Eastern and Western equine encephalomyelitis viruses belong to the genus Alphavirus of the family Togaviridae. Alternate infection of birds and mosquitoes maintain these viruses in nature. The disease occurs sporadically in horses and humans from mid-summer to late autumn. Horses and humans are tangential dead-end hosts.

Read the all presentation of EEEV and WEEV PDF Source -http://www.oie.int

  • Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) viruses, of the genus Alphavirus of the family Togaviridae, cause disease ranging from mild febrile reactions to fatal encephalitic zoonoses in Equidae and humans. They are transmitted by haematophagous insects, primarily mammalophilic mosquitoes.

Read the all presentation of VEEV PDF Source -http://www.oie.int

Equine infectious anaemia

Equine infectious anaemia (EIA) is a persistent viral infection of equids. The causative agent, EIA virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus in the family Retroviridae, subfamily Orthoretrovirinae.

Read the all presentation of EIAV PDF Source -http://www.oie.int

Equine viral arteritis

Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a contagious viral disease of equids caused by equine arteritis virus (EAV), an RNA virus classified in the genus, Arterivirus, family Arteriviridae. Equine arteritis virus is found in horse populations in many countries world-wide. Although infrequently reported in the past, confirmed outbreaks of EVA appear to be on the increase.

Read the all presentation of EVA PDF Source -http://www.oie.int

Vesicular stomatitis

Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is a vesicular disease of horses, cattle and pigs caused by vesiculoviruses of the family Rhabdoviridae. This disease is clinically indistinguishable in relevant susceptible species from foot and mouth disease (FMD), vesicular exanthema of swine (VES), or swine vesicular disease (SVD).

Read the all presentation of VSV  PDF Source -http://www.oie.int

Contagious equine metritis

Contagious equine metritis is an inflammatory disease of the proximal and distal reproductive tract of the mare caused by Taylorella equigenitalis, which usually results in temporary infertility. It is a nonsystemic infection, the effects of which are restricted to the reproductive tract of the mare.

Read the all presentation of CEM PDF Source -http://www.oie.int

Glanders and melioidosis

Glanders is a contagious and fatal disease of horses, donkeys, and mules, caused by infection with the bacterium Burkholderia mallei. The pathogen causes nodules and ulcerations in the upper respiratory tract and lungs. A skin form also occurs, known as ‘farcy’.

Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei in humans and animals and sometimes resembles glanders in horses.


Dourine is a chronic or acute contagious disease of breeding equids that is transmitted directly from animal to animal during coitus. The causal organism is Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) equiperdum (Doflein, 1901).

Read the all presentation of dourine ; PDF Source -http://www.oie.int